Ligamentous Instability Tests
Ligamentous Stress Tests:
Note: Recent evidence has shown ligamentous stress tests determine that a ligament is sprained but they are unable to differentiate which ligament is sprained. The special tests I have listed have not taken this into account and therefore may be more beneficial as screening for a sprain vs. diagnosing a specific ligament.
Fujii T, Luo Z, Kitaoka HB, et al. The manual stress test may not be sufficient to differentiate ankle ligament injuries. Clinical Biomechanics. Volume 15, Issue 8, October 2000, Pages 619-23.
High Ankle Sprain/Syndesmotic Sprain Tests:
1. Cross-Leg Test: Patient is sitting and crosses the affected leg over the opposite knee. Pressure is then applied to the proximal fibula of the affected leg. A positive test is pain in the distal ankle.
2. External Rotation Stress Test: Assesses the deltoid ligament. Patient can be sitting or prone. The tester passively internally rotates the tibia, dorsiflexes the ankle and then externally rotates the foot. A positive test is symptom reproduction.
3. Squeeze Test: Patient is prone and the examiner squeezes the proximal tibia and fibular together. A positive test is symptom reproduction.